Import into RefWorks 1. Introduction Higher education becomes an important political issue within the knowledge-based economy. The opportunities that education affords to individuals and societies bring to the foreground the issues of quality and equality of opportunity in higher education.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Research during the past decade shows that social class or socioeconomic status SES is related to satisfaction and stability in romantic unions, the quality of parent-child relationships, and a range of developmental outcomes for adults and children.
This review focuses on evidence regarding potential mechanisms proposed to account for these associations. Research findings reported during the past decade demonstrate support for an interactionist model of the relationship between SES and family life, which incorporates assumptions from both the social causation and social selection perspectives.
The review concludes with recommendations for future research on SES, family processes and individual development in terms of important theoretical and methodological issues yet to be addressed.
Following our discussion of economic conditions, we turn our attention to evidence for the association between socioeconomic status SES and 1 satisfaction and stability in adult romantic relationships, 2 the quality of parent-child relationships, and 3 the personal adjustment of adults and children.
To guide our efforts we used these and related keywords in our search for information through Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO and direct inspection of major family and developmental journals such as Journal of Marriage and Family. From our review of research and theory during the past decade, we conclude that the relationship between SES and the quality of family life is less simple than once assumed.
We conclude this review by considering the implications of these observations for the development of theory and research during the next decade. Because of space constraints, we were selective in our use of reference materials and incorporate only those with the greatest relevance for the purposes of this report.
Rather, we focus our attention on research which measures socioeconomic status or social class as a continuum rather than as a set of categories such as poor versus not poor.
Thus, the focus of this review is primarily on quantitative analyses inasmuch as most of the qualitative work on families and social class or SES is concerned with the issue of poverty. Especially important, our primary interest concerns possible theoretical explanations for the association between SES and family life.
Research dating back to the depression years of the s has confirmed that families often suffer when faced with economic hardship or low SES e. A crucial and continuing issue concerns the mechanisms that might account for the relationship between SES and family processes, as well as factors that might moderate that relationship.
In this review we are particularly interested in theoretical progress during the past decade that improves understanding of the nature of the relationship between SES, family processes, and individual well-being.
After reviewing evidence for sometimes opposing theoretical perspectives, we evaluate important new directions for future theoretical developments in this area of research.
We also address the methodological requirements for adequately pursuing these theoretical issues. Before turning to these matters, we describe economic trends during the past decade, consider the measurement of SES and social class, and review underlying assumptions of various theoretical approaches.
Department of Commerce, Since then, the twelve-month change in nominal house prices has turned negative nationwide for the first time since the Great Depression and mortgage loan foreclosures have soared OECD,underscoring the significant economic distress in the U.
A number of trends further demonstrate these adverse changes in the economy. Although unemployment increased across all racial and ethnic groups during the s, unemployment was experienced disproportionately by African Americans and Hispanics. Problems with employment are reflected in levels of family income.
Bureau of the Census, However, these trends have varied by race and family structure. Inmother-headed single-parent families, father-headed single-parent families, and traditional male-as-breadwinner families also had median incomes that were less than they had been in in constant dollars; U.
Married-couple families with both spouses working earn more than any other family structure. In contrast, the median income of mother-headed families was less than half that of married couple families throughout the s. Father-headed households fared slightly better.
Also important, the s saw a continuation in the structure of income distribution established in the s, which strongly benefited the upper classes. Race and gender continued to influence the economic circumstances of individuals and families during the past decade. Moreover, racial and ethnic minorities have not seen gains to the same degree as women.
African American family income, for instance, was The statistics for families with children under 18 living in poverty are similarly dismal.
All racial groups for which there are complete data showed increases in the poverty rate from Current knowledge about potential interactions between socioeconomic status and the short‐ and long‐term effects of air pollution on mortality was reviewed.
A systematic search of the Medline database through April extracted detailed information about exposure measures, socioeconomic. Socioeconomic Status and School Achievement Previous studies found that socioeconomic status, the level of family income, what level of income a family is in; low-SES or high-SES, is an important relationships, revealed very distinctive patterns in how the parents and children related to.
Socioeconomic Status and the affects the characteristics measured by tests, which subsequently affect grades. A key feature of this model, and safe family environments. Although differences in SES among people may not be socially desired, it does not follow that an overlap between SES and ability.
In this analysis we explore whether socioeconomic status (SES) moderates the association between social relations and health.
Does socioeconomic status affect the association of social relationships and health? A moderator analysis. Nico Vonneilich 1 Email author, Karl-Heinz Jöckel 2, Raimund Erbel 3, Jens Klein 1. There are numerous indirect ways in which socioeconomic status (SES) can advantage or disadvantage people in developing social capital.
Specifically, SES affects the access individuals have to beneficial resources that indirectly affects the social capital benefits . The residents of neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status (SES) are reported to be less physically active, relative to those living in high SES areas.
1, 2 Such disparities are particularly apparent for recreational physical activity.