Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Attitudes Toward Mental Illness 18th and 19th Century England Essay Sample During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, attitudes toward the mentally ill and their treatment varied throughout England.
Little was known of biochemistry or endocrinology. Traditional ideas of the body, whereby women were regarded as smaller versions of men, and 'turned outside in' i.
As the body was also defined as a closed system of energy, physical, mental and reproductive expenditure were held to be in competition. Hence the notions that male sexual 'excess' led to debility and female reproductive health was damaged by intellectual study.
Hence, too, must have derived the Victorian prescription for many ailments: In the early Victorian period disease transmission was largely understood as a matter of inherited susceptibility today's 'genetic' component and individual intemperance 'lifestyle'abetted by climate and location, which were deemed productive of noxious exhalations a version of environmental causation.
Water- and air-borne infection was not generally accepted. Thus the edition of Buchan's Domestic Medicine, with its coloured frontispiece showing the symptoms of smallpox, scarlet fever and measles, listed among the general causes of illness 'diseased parents', night air, sedentary habits, anger, wet feet and abrupt changes of temperature.
The causes of fever included injury, bad air, violent emotion, irregular bowels and extremes of heat and cold. Cholera, shortly to be epidemic in many British cities, was said to be caused by rancid or putrid food, by 'cold fruits' such as cucumbers and melons, and by passionate fear or rage.
Treatments relied heavily on a 'change of air' to the coast, for exampletogether with emetic and laxative purgation and bleeding by cup or leech a traditional remedy only abandoned in mid-century to clear 'impurities' from the body.
A limited range of medication was employed, and the power of prayer was regularly invoked. Diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis often called consumption were endemic; others such as cholera, were frighteningly epidemic.
In the morbidity statistics, infectious and respiratory causes predominated the latter owing much to the sulphurous fogs known as pea-soupers.
Male death rates were aggravated by occupational injury and toxic substances, those for women by childbirth and violence. Work-related conditions were often specific: In Britain, epidemiological measuring and mapping of mortality and morbidity was one of the first fruits of the Victorian passion for taxonomy, leading to the clear association of pollution and disease, followed by appropriate environmental health measures.
A major breakthrough came during the cholera outbreak, when Dr John Snow demonstrated that infection was spread not by miasmas but by contaminated water from a public pump in crowded Soho.
Free 18th century papers, essays, and research papers. My Account. Your search returned over - Prostitution in 18th Century England "Miss B____rn. No. l 8 Old Compton Street, Soho Close in the arms she languishingly lies With dying looks, short breath, and wishing eyes. 18th and 19th Century Attitudes Towards Women. Society attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, It was not until the 18th century when prosperity and urbanization attracted people to rural areas that some of the "undesirables", vagabonds and" beggars" on the streets gave rise concern to citizens. Public attitudes towards mental. Mental Health In The 18th/19th Century America ( National Health America). In this essay I will be discussing Read More. Words 3 Pages. Mental Health Essay The world health organisation definition of mental health defines it in a positive attitude towards health.
When the pump handle was removed, cholera subsided. It was then possible for public health officials such as Sir John Simon to push forward projects to provide clean water, separate sewage systems and rubbish removal in urban areas, as well as to legislate for improved housing - one goal being to reduce overcrowding.
The number of inhabitants per house in Scotland, for example, fell from 7. On a household basis, the indoor water-closet began to replace the traditional outdoor privy. Scientific developments in the 19th century had a major impact on understanding health and disease, as experimental research resulted in new knowledge in histology, pathology and microbiology.
Few of these advances took place in Britain, where medical practice was rarely linked to scientific work and there was public hostility to the animal vivisection on which many experiments relied.
The biochemical understanding of physiology began in Germany in the s, together with significant work on vision and the neuromuscular system, while in France Louis Pasteur laid the foundations of the germ theory of disease based on the identification of micro-bacterial organisms.
By the end of the century a new understanding of biology was thus coming into being, ushering in a new emphasis on rigorous hygiene and fresh air, and a long-lasting fear of invisible contagion from the unwashed multitude, toilet seats and shared utensils.
British patent applications around include devices for avoiding infection via the communion chalice and the new-fangled telephone. Technological developments underpinned this process, from the opthalmoscope and improved microscopes that revealed micro-organisms, to instruments like the kymograph, to measure blood pressure and muscular contraction.
By mid-century, the stethoscope, invented in France in to aid diagnosis of respiratory and cardiac disorders, became the symbolic icon of the medical profession. However, the most famous British visual image, Luke Fildes's The Doctor exhibited at the Royal Academy in shows a medical man with virtually no 'modern' equipment.18th and 19th Century Attitudes Towards Women From the author of both sources we can immediately gather that they both relate to middle-class women.
Attitudes Toward Mental Illness 18th and 19th Century England Essay Sample. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, attitudes toward the mentally ill and their treatment varied throughout England. Attitudes Toward Mental Illness 18th and 19th Century England Essay Sample During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, attitudes toward the mentally ill and their treatment varied throughout England.
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This collection of essays represents an ambitious attempt to investigate the history of community care in Britain and Ireland from to the present. Community care is examined as both a social phenomenon and a distinct gov ernment programme. This was a period when community care was central to mental health policy and the .
People who hold negative attitudes may not demonstrate discriminatory behaviour toward people who suffer from mental illness (Pinel, ).
Common effects of stigma are low self-esteem and discrimination in family and work settings.