STS Space Shuttle launch The Space Shuttle had been scheduled to be retired from service after STSbut controversy over the cancellation of several International Space Station components, most notably the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometerin order to meet deadlines for the retirement of the shuttle, caused the United States Government to consider ordering an additional mission. Bush on 15 October If STS had launched during Expedition 26, then Mark Kelly and Expedition 26 commander Scott Kelly would have become the first siblings and twins to fly in space at the same time.
Belter wargame from GDW Games Technological Disruption Of main interests to us is the use of mining as a part of in-situ resource utilizationthat is: But in the early stages, asteroid mining start-ups cannot be established to provide minerals to space industrialization because there won't be any.
No existing customers for their product. To get the ball rolling, the start-ups won't be looking for water ice or aluminum to sell to AsteroGobbler Inc.
Instead they will be looking for gold and platinum to sell on Terra. And that's when the spectre of Technological Disruption will raise its ugly head and make the powers-that-be turn red in the face with live steam angrily shooting out of their ears.
Imagine the rage of a member of the 0. Space mining has been mainly relegated to the realm of science fiction, and was not treated seriously by the international community. The private industry is starting to assemble towards space mining, and success on this front would have major impact on all nations.
We present in this paper a review of current space mining ventures, and the international legislation, which could stand in their way - or aid them in their mission. Following that, we present the results of a role-playing simulation in which the role of several important nations was played by students of international relations.
The results of the simulation are used as a basis for forecasting the potential initial responses of the nations of the world to a successful space mining operation in the future. The article is composed of three parts. The first section depicts the rationale for space mining and describes the current and future technological state of this field.
In the second part, we portray the simulation. We analyze the political outcomes which should be addressed by the international community in the third part. We then conclude with some lessons for further discussion of potential mechanisms to mitigate the primary dilemmas and concerns which would be raised once the technology becomes a reality.
Simulations and roleplaying games as a forecasting method second part Roleplaying and war-games are a widely used method for forecasting decisions by two or more parties in a conflict. The Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian war in was partly attributed to their use of wargames to provide superior training of their officers.
Since then, roleplaying games have become an accepted method for forecasting the way in which conflicts are resolved in business, law and politics. Roleplaying is also used to train professionals for future events and cases; this practice is particularly relevant in the legal field.
Roleplaying games have shown their merit, particularly in cases in which groups have conflicting and complicated wants and needs. Often in such cases, it has been discovered that even though negotiators can find a zone of agreement, they still fail to reach decisions that are accepted by all.
It turns out that expert negotiators often do not realize the emotional and personal needs, desires and difficulties that shape the decision making process. Roleplaying games do not suffer from this oversight, since the players are asked to fully emulate a certain character or side, and the needs and desires of the characters are automatically absorbed into the game's decision making process.
Roleplaying games are also of particular use when trying to forecast the impact and consequences of large changes. Experts have an advantage in understanding the results of small changes in their field of expertise, but they lose this benefit when confronted with major and disruptive changes that span many fields.
Roleplaying games can provide a different venue for forecasting the results of such cases: The scenario and process of the space mining simulation The scenario was designed with the help of space professionals with backgrounds in space engineering and technology, space politics and international law.
The primary purpose was to produce a general, workable scenario that would serve as a starting point to trigger processes and trends in the international system.
The simulation was conducted as part of a graduate class in Space Politics at Tel Aviv University, during the spring semester. The simulation game was presented to the students at the beginning of the semester.
About 20 graduate students from the graduate program for security studies and the graduate program for diplomacy participated in the simulation.
It should be noted that as often happens with graduate students in Israel, some of them had professional backgrounds in military service, the diplomatic corps, etc.
The initial goal of the simulation was for the students to get a sense of the variety of issues related to the politics of space: In conducting the simulation, we made no pretense that we were going to encompass all the issues related to space mining.
Rather, the objective was to raise awareness of some of the major issues involved and encourage creativity in searching for potential solutions.
The scenario began in the yearin which Earth's population has grown dramatically, and alternatives must be found to the dwindling natural resources that are essential for the continued growth of the global economy.
In an attempt to deal with this challenge, a number of private companies and national space agencies from the U.NASA's space shuttle fleet began setting records with its first launch on April 12, and continued to set high marks of achievement and endurance through 30 . As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from mtb15.com How Much Are NASA's Space Shuttles Worth? The space shuttle Discovery is schedule to launch Nov. 3 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla.
The shuttle Endeavour. The MESSENGER Team is composed of many different individuals, with a wide variety of roles and responsibilities. Scientists and engineers from across the country . The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle mtb15.com official program name was Space Transportation System (STS), taken from a plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for mtb15.com flight: July 21, Mar 05, · The External Tank, or ET, is the "gas tank" for the Orbiter; it contains the propellants used by the Space Shuttle Main Engines.
Image left: An External Tank falls back to Earth after being jettisoned from the Shuttle.